Establishing the validity of a multi-aptitude battery first requires meeting the requisite psychometric standards for each of the individual assessments. Each test is selected to be included in the “collection” of assessments (i.e., the battery) in order to provide a comprehensive picture of an individual’s range of aptitudes. Subsequently, validity evidence requires criterion-specific information that the assessments perform jointly to provide useful information in different performance environments.
The Ball Aptitude Battery® (BAB™) continues to demonstrate and meet validity and reliability standards, which are the key scientific requirements essential to test construction and development.
Tests cannot be valid unless they are first reliable. Reliability refers to consistency in measurement across individuals and time. The three basic procedures used by the Foundation to estimate the reliability of the Ball Aptitude Battery include: test-retest reliability, internal consistency reliability, and parallel forms reliability.
BAB reliability research suggests that:
The pattern of reliability among BAB subtests has remained consistent across BAB forms.
Internal consistency and test-retest methods of reliability estimation support that the items of each test measure the same construct and that they do so consistently over time.
Validity, in essence, refers to whether a test measures what it says it measures. Validation of a multi-aptitude test battery is an ongoing process. Through data collection and research investigations, the Foundation continuously examines validity. The two major types of validity evidence gathered on the BAB are discussed below.
Construct-Related Validity Evidence
Using factor-analytic methods, scores on BAB subtests have been analyzed in relation to both other BAB subtests and the subtests of other major aptitude batteries in order to establish that the subtests are each measuring unique and distinct constructs.
BAB construct-related validity research suggests that:
The BAB factor structure is stable across time.
Factor structure is stable across samples and forms.
Measurement equivalence studies support a lack of bias in the BAB.
Convergent and discriminant validity evidence has been gathered.
Confirmatory Factor Analysis demonstrates that the BAB has a broad offering of unique aptitude measurements.
Criterion-Related Validity Evidence
Criterion-related validity evidence is one of the ways to add confidence and demonstrate that what is being measured is consistent in its relationships with important educational or work-related outcomes. The BAB has been administered to individuals who represent a variety of ages and in a variety of educational and work settings. Data collected for numerous research and consulting projects have provided support for the criterion-related validity of the BAB.
Data collected in educational settings:
BAB subtest scores were statistically significant predictors of academic performance across subjects.
BAB subtests and scores on standardized tests also show strong relationships with academic performance.
Criterion-related validity data collected on the BAB within occupational settings is described in our Performance Environments section.